Female Infertility – Ovulatory Dysfunction
KIC- The Surrogacy and Infertility Super-Specialty Clinic.
Ovulatory Dysfunction results from Congenital Defects, Hormonal Deficiencies and/or the ageing process. Common forms of Ovulatory Dysfunction include:
- Some women don’t have menstrual periods while others menstruate but don’t ovulate. -Women with Amenorrhea have never had a period or had irregular periods that stopped prematurely.
- With Anovulation, eggs aren’t released from the follicles.
- Luteal Phase Defects occur when a woman has a menstrual cycle and is ovulating, but the cycle is too short for the uterine lining to thicken properly.
Premature Ovarian Failure: Menopause usually occurs after several decades of menstrual cycles and natural depletion of the ovarian reserve. Premature ovarian failure or early menopause can be caused by
- exposure to certain chemicals
- Chemotherapy and radiation for cancer treatment.
- It also results from other conditions such as genital tuberculosis and endometriosis that affect the cycle-regulating hormones or damage the ovaries so they no longer produce eggs.
- Certain genetic disorders can trigger premature ovarian failure
- as can autoimmune diseases such as lupus or rheumatoid arthritis – that cause the body to mistakenly attack the ovaries.
Polycystic Ovarian Syndrome: Genetically linked hormonal imbalances can cause Poly Cystic Ovarian Syndrome (PCOS), a condition that prevents ovulation. Without the necessary level of Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH), the follicles don’t develop properly and the eggs don’t mature. An imbalance of Luteinizing Hormone (LH) causes overproduction of Estrogen, abnormal thickening of the uterine lining and very heavy and/or irregular periods. High levels of LH can trigger over production of male hormones including testosterone, which cause acne and facial hair in women. Over time the elevated estrogen levels associated with PCOS may create an increased risk of uterine cancer and diabetes.
Hyperprolactinemia: This condition is associated with the pituitary gland located in the brain, which produces Prolactin to help regulate ovulation and stimulate breast milk production in pregnant women. Overproduction of Prolactin results from -tumors of the pituitary ,an under active thyroid (Hypothyroidism) or an adverse reaction to certain prescription medications( including Antihistamines, Oral Contraceptives, Tranquilizers and Antihypertensive). As a result, women experience irregular or no ovulation, and they may produce breast milk even though they aren’t pregnant.
Hypothalamic Amenorrhea: The Hypothalamus gland, also located in the brain, produces Gonadotropin Release Hormone (GnRH). This chemical stimulates the pituitary gland to release Follicle Stimulating Hormone (FSH) and Luteinizing Hormone (LH). When the Hypothalamus stops producing GnRH as a result of this condition, it affects the FSH and LH levels needed for egg development and ovulation.